ANIMAL HEALTH

Healthy Puppy Schedule
2 Weeks : Deworm (Pyrantel)

4 Weeks : Deworm (Pyrantel), introduce commercial puppy food, moisten with water or milk

6 Weeks : First puppy vaccination (DHLPPCV)& deworm (Pyrantel). Wean puppy. Offer dry or canned food. Feed 3 times / day.

9 Weeks : 2nd puppy vaccination (DHLPPCV) & deworm (Pyrantel).

12 Weeks : 3rd puppy vaccination (DHLPPCV) & deworm (Pyrantel).

4 Months : Deworm. Place on heartworm preventative & give at monthly intervals for life (Ivermectine/Pyrantel/Prazicuantel). Apply Anti-Rabies vaccine.

6 Months : Spay or neuter. Heats can begin this early. Begin feeding twice a day.

1 Year : Feed twice a day. Different breeds require different diets.

15 Months : Annual Vaccination (DHLPPCV), give yearly for Life. Apply anti- Rabies vaccine. Reapply every two years for life.
Visit a veterinarian once a year for your dog’s complete checkover.

IT IS EXTREMELY IMPORTANT TO FOLLOW THE SCHEDULE FOR ALL (DHLPPCV) VACCINATIONS TO BUILD UP THE IMMUNE SYSTEM AGAINST THE FOLLOWING CONTAGIOUS & DEADLY VIRUSES:
Distemper: transmitted by direct or indirect contact with discharges from an infected dog’s eye & nose. Widespread, highly contagious & often deadly, even among older dogs. The primary killer of puppies.

Hepatitis: caused by type 1 Adenovirus & attacks the liver. Transmitted through contact with contaminated objects such as urine, saliva, & faeces. Early signs are similar to distemper. Type 2 Adenovirus is normally associated with kennel cough.

Leptospirosis: an infectious bacterial disease transmitted by contact with urine. Can be spread to humans as well as other animals & may lead to permanent kidney damage.

Parvo: highly resistant virus that withstands extreme temperature changes and exposure to most disinfectants. May cause severe diarrhea & vomiting. A highly contagious disease, especially dangerous for puppies.

Parainfluenza: mild respiratory tract infection transmitted through contact with nasal secretions. Infection can be severe in young puppies.

Corona Virus: a highly contagious, but mild & self limiting intestinal disease that occasionally will cause death. Causes vomiting & diarrhea in dogs of all ages, but is seen most often in young puppies.
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Serious Issues for Dogs & Cats
Why giving Tylenol to a cat is a NO NO!
Tylenol is metabolized by the liver and kidney and excreted through what we call pathways. These pathways in dogs function efficiently unlike those of the cats. Because the cat is unable to excrete these metabolite the Red Blood Cells are damaged. The function of the Red Blood Cell is to carry oxygen to tissue. It does so through what we call the HEME molecule (hemoglobin). Hemoglobin combines with oxygen to form OXYHEMOGLOBIN. With the toxic metabolite present, the hemoglobin is destroyed and therefore you have ANEMIA and obviously no oxygen to the tissue.
Take home message - Do not administer Tylenol to cats. No dosage is safe.
TVT
Canine transmissible venereal tumor (CTVT), also called transmissible venereal tumor (TVT) is a sexually transmitted cancer of dogs that occurs most often in young, unneutered male and female dogs.
Any breed may be affected. Female dogs are at a greater risk of developing TVT than male dogs. CTVT is most commonly seen in sexually active dogs in tropical and subtropical climates. The disease is spread from an affected dog to a tumor-free dog by sexual contact when dogs mate, particularly common in stray dogs, which mate without any control after reaching sexual maturation.

In male dogs, the tumor affects the penis or prepuce. In females, it affects the vagina or labia.

The primary tumor, which may arise as a single lump or as multiple masses, develops on the mucosa of the external genitalia. There are rare reports of tumors in the nasal and oral cavities associated with sniffing and licking behaviors. The transmission and behavior of TVT suggests a virus as a cause. However, to date no evidence to support this has been found. These tumors may resemble small, pinkish to reddish cauliflower-textured nodules that may be firm or soft. They tend to bleed and may ulcerate. Definitive diagnosis of TVT requires some cellular sampling, with a fine-needle aspirate or biopsy. TVT may spread locally, but metastasis (distant spreading) to other tissues such as the skin, brain, and other organs occurs infrequently. Immunocompromised dogs may experience metastasis more frequently than dogs with a healthy immune system.

Spontaneous regression of TVT may occur. However, due to the chance of metastasis, especially in dogs whose immune status is unknown or not ascertainable, treatment is usually given. If the tumor is small and no metastasis has occurred, surgery may be curative if complete excision of the mass along with a zone of normal tissue is feasible. If the mass cannot be completely removed then chemotherapy or radiation may be used to treat the disease.Several chemotherapy drugs have been used to treat TVT. Vincristine is perhaps the most effective agent against TVT. It is well tolerated by most dogs. Most dogs will need between two and six treatments for a complete remission to occur. Vincristine will eradicate both local and metastatic TVT; it is considered the treatment of choice for these tumors.

For dogs that cannot tolerate vincristine, radiation therapy may be very effective if no metastatic lesions exist. Overall, though the prognosis for cure of TVT is good, it must be noted that a cure is not always the outcome. Sometimes the treatment is too debilitating for the dog. It is a fairly expensive treatment here in Belize and many pet owners regretfully must decide to have the dog put down.

Please spay and neuter your pets, even if they are safely confined inside your yard. Sexually active dogs will find a way to mate. An infected male will gladly scale a fence or dig under or the female will meet him half way and you not only have an unwanted pregnancy but perhaps an infected dog as well.



Top 10 Drugs That Poison Our Pets
Prescription and over-the-counter medications may help you feel much better, but they can make our pets feel much, much worse. In 2007, the ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center (APCC) handled 89,000 cases of pets exposed to human medications - by far, the most common cause of household poisonings in small animals.

To help you prevent an accident from happening, our experts have drafted a list of the top 10 human medications that most often poison our furry friends. Here’s a sneak peek at their research:
* Pets are ultra-sensitive to anti-inflammatory medications like ibuprofen and naproxen, which can cause stomach and intestinal ulcers and kidney damage in cats.
* Nothing like antidepressants to bring a pet down—they can trigger vomiting, lethargy and a frightening condition called serotonin syndrome.
* The popular pain remedy acetaminophen is especially toxic to cats, and can damage red blood cells and interfere with oxygen flow.
* Pseudoephedrine is a decongestant found in many cold remedies, but acts like a stimulant in cats and dogs, who can experience elevated heart rates and seizures.
Pets often snatch pill vials from counters and nightstands or gobble up meds accidentally dropped on the floor. The solution? “Keep all medications in a cabinet,” advises Dr. Helen Myers, veterinary toxicologist at the ASPCA. “And consider taking your pills in a bathroom, so if you drop one, you can shut the door and prevent your pet from accessing the room until the medication is found.”

Dr. Myers also recommends learning the name, dosage and quantity of all of your prescriptions should the unthinkable occur. “For example, if you keep several medications in a bottle in your purse, put in a known amount,” she says. “So if your dog gets into the bottle, you know what the worst case scenario is.” If your pet does swallow any meds, stay calm and try to assess how many are left in the bottle versus how many might have been consumed. This information is crucial for veterinarians when assigning your pet’s risk level and determining a proper course of treatment.

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Top 10 Human Medications That Poison Our Pets
If you suspect your pet has ingested any of the following items, please call your veterinarian. And remember to keep all medications tucked away in bathroom cabinets - and far from curious cats and dogs.

NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) like ibuprofen or naproxen are the most common cause of pet poisoning in small animals, and can cause serious problems even in minimal doses. Pets are extremely sensitive to their effects, and may experience stomach and intestinal ulcers and - in the case of cats - kidney damage.
Antidepressants
Antidepressants can cause vomiting and lethargy and certain types can lead to serotonin syndrome - a condition marked by agitation, elevated body temperature, heart rate and blood pressure, disorientation, vocalisation, tremors and seizures.
Acetaminophen
Cats are especially sensitive to acetaminophen, which can damage red blood cells and interfere with their ability to transport oxygen. In dogs, it can cause liver damage and, at higher doses, red blood cell damage.
Methylphenidate (for ADHD)
Medications used to treat ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder) in people act as stimulants in pets and can dangerously elevate heart rates, blood pressure and body temperature, as well as cause seizures.
Fluorouracil
Fluorouracil—an anti-cancer drug—is used topically to treat minor skin cancers and solar keratitis in humans. It has proven to be rapidly fatal to dogs, causing severe vomiting, seizures and cardiac arrest even in those who’ve chewed on discarded cotton swabs used to apply the medication.
Isoniazid
Often the first line of defense against tuberculosis, isoniazid is particularly toxic for dogs because they don’t metabolize it as well as other species. It can cause a rapid onset of severe seizures that may ultimately result in death.
Pseudoephedrine
Pseudoephedrine is a popular decongestant in many cold and sinus products, and acts like a stimulant if accidentally ingested by pets. In cats and dogs, it causes elevated heart rates, blood pressure and body temperature as well as seizures.
Anti-diabetics
Many oral diabetes treatments - including glipizide and glyburide - can cause a major drop in blood sugar levels of affected pets. Clinical signs of ingestion include disorientation, lack of coordination and seizures.
Vitamin D derivatives
Even small exposures to Vitamin D analogues like calcipotriene and calcitriol can cause life-threatening spikes in blood calcium levels in pets. Clinical signs of exposure - including vomiting, loss of appetite, increased urination and thirst due to kidney failure - often don't occur for more than 24 hours after ingestion.
Baclofen
Baclofen is a muscle relaxant that can impair the central nervous systems of cats and dogs. Some symptoms of ingestion include significant depression, disorientation, vocalization, seizures and coma, which can lead to death.